Government bodies in the 21st century face a complex web of challenges. They need to manage interdependencies: navigating within and between diverse policy domains and levels of authority to address increasingly complex societal problems and greater internationalization.
At the same time, open government means responding to demands for more open, transparent and consultative government.
Also, the public sector is becoming more performance focused and takes into account the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of government measures.
Here, it uses market-type mechanisms: providing government services through market mechanisms, such as outsourcing, public-private partnerships and vouchers.
In responding to these demands, public decision-makers face tough political choices.